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Lipid materials used in cosmetics mainly include oil and wax, which is the general name of oil phase raw materials, and also a matrix raw material. At room temperature, it is called oil in the form of fluid and wax in the form of semi-solid. Its main components are high-grade fatty acid esters. It mainly plays the role of skin care, lubrication and curing. Commonly used in cream or emulsion products.
According to different sources, oily raw materials can be roughly divided into animal oil, vegetable oil, mineral oil, semi-synthetic oil and related waxes. Generally speaking, the skin absorbs animal oil best, followed by vegetable oil.
I. Animal and vegetable oils and waxes
Animal and vegetable oils and waxes are commonly used as raw materials: coconut oil, olive oil, palm oil, lanolin, beeswax, whale wax, jojoba oil, etc. This kind of raw material has high requirements for anticorrosion.
Olive oil is a triglyceride of fatty acid. Its fatty acid composition is approximately 9.0% palmitic acid, 82.5% oleic acid, 6.0% linoleic acid, 2.3% stearic acid, 0.2% arachidic acid and a little myristic acid. It is light yellow or yellowish green transparent liquid with special fragrance. It is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and other light organic solvents. The iodine value was (1) 80-88. Olive oil plays a role of moisturizing and nourishing skin. It also has a certain sunscreen effect. It is usually used as a fatliquor or lubricant in W/O cream or lotion.
Jojoba oil is a multifunctional vegetable oil originally derived from Simondia fruit. Molecular distillation of Jojoba oil is a colorless and odorless transparent liquid. Its main components are unsaturated higher fatty acids, which are approximately 64.4% of 11-eicosenoic acid, 30.2% of 13-eicosenoic acid, 1.4% of oleic acid, 0.5% of palmitoleic acid and 3.5% of other saturated fatty acids. Jojoba oil used in cosmetics has good stability, easy to fuse with skin and be absorbed by skin, no greasy feeling, can also increase skin elasticity and dissolve sebum, is a good emollient and degreaser.
Squalane is a kind of hydrocarbon oil extracted from the liver of deep-sea shark and hydrogenated to produce an excellent performance, so it is also called deep-sea shark liver oil. Squalane is a hydrocarbon consisting of six isoprene double bonds. It belongs to terpenoid structure. Its freezing point is -31 C. It is a kind of high chemical stability, good affinity for skin, no allergy and irritation, and can accelerate the penetration of other active ingredients into skin. Low polarity and medium spreading, and pure, colorless, odorless. In addition, it can also inhibit the growth of fungi to a certain extent.
Beeswax, also known as honey wax, can be divided into four main components, namely esters, free acids, free alcohols and hydrocarbons. In addition, it contains trace volatile oils and pigments. In esters, there are palmitic acid beeswax ester (about 80%, which is the main component of beeswax), beeswax wax ester and arachidonic acid beeswax ester; in free acids, there are waxy acid (about 15%), lignin acid, beeswax acid, leaf lice acid, arachidonic acid, neowaxy acid; in free alcohols, there are octacosanol and arachidonic acid; in hydrocarbons, there are 25%; Alkane, heptadecane, eicosane, 31-alkane and unsaturated honeybeene.
Lanolin is a by-product of wool after washing, recycling and refining. Natural Lanolin is the secretion of sebaceous glands of sheep skin. It is a mixture of many kinds of higher fatty acid esters with strong odor. The refined lanolin is an excellent emollient, which contains about 0.8%-1.7% free sterols to improve the moisture and water absorption of lanolin.
Pure Lanolin is a yellow, translucent, oily, viscous paste semi-solid, insoluble in water, but has good water absorption; soluble in 3:10 chloroform-dichloroethane mixture, slightly soluble in carbon tetrachloride, ether and xylene. The melting point ranges from 38 C to 42 C.
96% of lanolin used as cosmetic raw material is ester, which is a mixture of sterols, triterpene alcohols, aliphatic alcohols and saturated or unsaturated fatty acid esters of C24-C28 chain alkanes-diols. Lanolin and lanolin alcohol accounted for about 50% respectively.
Lanolin has the functions of softening skin, preventing degreasing and keeping moisture from chapped skin, and is more easily absorbed by skin than general hydrocarbons. In addition, it can also play a certain role in assisting emulsification.
II. Mineral oils and waxes
The main components of mineral oils and waxes are higher alkanes than C16 extracted from petroleum. The representative raw materials are mineral oil, mineral fat, paraffin and so on. It is a kind of relatively cheap raw material.
Mineral oil, also known as white oil and liquid paraffin, consists of saturated components of paraffins and naphthenes, and some contain trace aromatic hydrocarbons. Pure mineral oil is a colorless transparent oily liquid with no odor. It is stable to acid, light and heat, insoluble in ethanol, soluble in ether, benzene, petroleum ether, and soluble with most fat oils.
The amount of mineral oil in cream is generally 2%-35%, which has the functions of moisturizing, cleaning and increasing oil sensitivity. At the same time, it can also reduce production costs.
Mineral grease, commonly known as vaseline, is a viscous solid separated from the residue of petroleum after atmospheric and vacuum distillation. At the same time, it needs to be mixed with different amounts of high and medium viscous lubricants according to the requirements. Yellow wax paste removed from petroleum residue contains many impurities. The mineral fat used in cosmetics should be clear about the whole refining process and be able to prove that the obtained substance is non-carcinogenic and odor-free.
The refined mineral fat is odorless and translucent. Soluble in benzene, ether, petroleum ether, insoluble in water, alcohol, glycerol. Its chemical property is stable, melting point is 38 ~45 C, and it has good water retention. It is often used as a base material in cosmetics.
Paraffin, alias solid paraffin, is extracted from some distillates of petroleum, shale oil or other asphalt mineral oil. It is white or yellowish translucent and has obvious crystal structure. There are 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58 degrees according to the melting point.
Pure paraffin is a waxy solid, white, odorless and tasteless. Paraffin wax is insoluble in water, low solubility in alcohol and ketone, soluble in carbon tetrachloride, ether, carbon disulfide, various mineral oils and most vegetable oils. The higher the melting point of paraffin, the smaller the relative solubility and the more stable the chemical properties.
Ground wax is a common matrix material in cream cosmetics. It is white to yellowish solid wax, odorless and tasteless. The melting point of ground wax varies from 60 to 90 degrees C, insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol, chloroform, ether, petroleum ether, turpentine, carbon disulfide, trichloromethane, mineral oil, etc. The main components are naphthenes and isoalkanes with long side chains above C25, and a small amount of linear alkanes and aromatics. It has an amorphous appearance and strong lipophilic ability. The ground wax is mainly made from the residue wax paste of petroleum purification and dewaxing by refining method.
3. Synthetic oils and waxes
Stearic acid and its derivatives
Stearic acid is octadecanoic acid, melting point 69.6 C, boiling point 376.1 C, relative density 0.9408, slightly soluble in water. Industrial products are generally white or yellowish granules or blocks, which are a mixture of stearic acid and palmitic acid, and contain a small amount of oleic acid with a slight fat odor.
The saponification products of stearic acid play an emulsifying role in the cream, thus turning it into a stable and white paste. Stearic acid is also the main raw material for making emulsion. Stearic acid soap esters are more widely used in cosmetics industry.
Cetaceanol is also called hexadecanol and palmitol. It was originally made by saponification of whale wax. White crystal. Density was 0.811. Melting point 49 C. Boiling point 344 C.
Cetacean wax alcohol is insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol, chloroform and ether, but it has certain water absorption. It can be used as emulsion matrix and greasy matrix (such as vaseline) after mixing, it can increase its water absorption. When contacting with water or water-borne liquid, it forms W/O emulsion matrix after fully mixing water absorption. It plays a stabilizing and thickening role in O/W emulsion matrix oil phase.
Common are isopropyl palmitate (IPP) and isooctyl palmitate, which is one of the widely used raw materials in cosmetics in China since the 1980s. Both of them are colorless, odorless and odorless oily liquids, soluble in ethanol, ether, chloroform and so on. This kind of material has good mutual solubility to oil, low viscosity, good lubricity and spreading property.
Polysiloxane is the abbreviation of polyorganosiloxane. It is a kind of polymer with repeated Si-O bonds as the main chain and organic groups directly connected to silicon atoms. Its general formula is [RnSi4-n/2]m, where R represents organic groups, such as methyl, phenyl, etc., n is the number of organic groups connected on silicon atoms (between 1 and 3); m is the degree of polymerization (m is not). Less than 2). Polysiloxane refers to polydimethylsiloxane and its derivatives. It is an odorless, odorless and stimulating oily material. Polysiloxane has good lubricity, air permeability and stability, and also has certain anti-static and anti-ultraviolet effect.
Polydimethylsiloxane, also known as dimethylsiloxane, is a linear polymer with siloxane as its framework. It is a kind of non-oily synthetic oil. It is a colorless transparent liquid or viscous liquid. It has different viscosities according to the degree of polymerization. It is basically tasteless, insoluble in water and ethanol, soluble in carbon tetrachloride, benzene, chloroform, ether, toluene and other organic solvents. Dimethyl silicone oil has good thixotropy, easy to spread on the skin and form hydrophobic film after application, thus increasing the water resistance of cream without producing greasy feeling. It also has a good compatibility with the skin, odorless, odorless, non-irritating, high safety. In addition, it is often used as defoamer in the production of cosmetics.
(Source: Beijing Daily Chemical Association)
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